The Goldfinger catastrophe theorem

Lee Coppack

James Bond villain Auric Goldfinger explained his approach to causation in the following way: “Once is happenstance. Twice is coincidence. The third time it’s enemy action.”

For continued access to free content, you need to register.

(If you’re already registered, please sign in here.)

Register to continue reading

SR Europe products

We’re glad you’re finding our content useful. For continued access to free content on the site please take a few moments to register, or sign in if you have already registered. 

  • Breaking industry news as it happens
  • Expert analysis and comment from industry leaders
  • Unlimited access to all stories, including premium content
  • Sign up for newsletters
  • Create a profile and post comments on stories